Meaning of paraphrase wikipedia page

The act of paraphrasing is also called "paraphrasis". A paraphrase typically explains or clarifies the text that is being paraphrased. For example, "The signal was red" might be paraphrased as "The train was not allowed to pass because the signal was red".

A paraphrase is usually introduced with verbum decani —a declaratory expression to signal the transition to the paraphrase. For example, in "The signal was red, that isthe train was not allowed to proceed," the that is signals the paraphrase that follows.

A paraphrase does not need to accompany a direct quotation. The paraphrase typically serves to put the source's statement into perspective or to clarify the context in which it appeared. A paraphrase is typically more detailed than a summary.

One should add the source at the end of the sentence, for example: When the light was red, trains could not go Wikipedia. Paraphrase may attempt to preserve the essential meaning of the material being paraphrased. Thus, the intentional or otherwise reinterpretation of a source to infer a meaning that is not explicitly evident in the source itself qualifies as "original research ," and not as paraphrase.

Unlike a meta phrasewhich represents a "formal equivalent" of the source, a para phrase represents a "dynamic equivalent" thereof. For details, see dynamic and formal equivalence.

The term is applied to the genre of Biblical paraphraseswhich were the most widely circulated versions of the Bible available in medieval Europe.


The phrase "in your own words" is often used within this context to imply that the writer has rewritten the text in their own writing style — how they would have written it if they had created the idea. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Paraphrase disambiguation. January The Open University. Retrieved July 27, Categories : Rhetoric Translation studies. Hidden categories: Articles containing Latin-language text Articles containing Ancient Greek to -language text.Close paraphrasing is the superficial modification of material from another source.

Editors should generally summarize source material in their own wordsadding inline citations as required by the sourcing policy.

meaning of paraphrase wikipedia page

Limited close paraphrasing is appropriate within reason, as is quoting, so long as the material is clearly attributed in the text — for example, by adding "John Smith wrote Limited close paraphrasing is also appropriate if there are only a limited number of ways to say the same thing.

Close paraphrasing without in-text attribution may constitute plagiarismand when extensive with or without in-text attribution may also violate Wikipedia's copyright policywhich forbids Wikipedia contributors from copying an excessive amount of material directly from other sources. Public domain material must likewise be attributed to avoid plagiarism. If the source material bears a free copyright license that is compatible with Wikipedia's licensescopying or closely paraphrasing it is not a copyright violation so long as the source is attributed somewhere in the article, usually at the end.

The best way to prevent close paraphrasing is to understand clearly when it is a problem, how to avoid it, and how to address it when it appears. There are legal, ethical, and organizational standard considerations regarding the use of close paraphrasing. Wikipedia's primary concern is with the legal constraints imposed by copyright law.

Close paraphrasing of the creative expression in a non-free copyrighted source is likely to be an infringement of the copyright of the source. In many countries close paraphrasing may be also seen as mutilation or distortion of an author's work, infringing on their moral rights. Facts and ideas cannot be protected by copyright, but creative expression is protected.


The test of creativity is minimal. Hilaire Belloc 's More Beasts: for Worse Children illustrates creative expression in his description of a llama :. The Llama is a woolly sort of fleecy hairy goat, with an indolent expression and an undulating throat; like an unsuccessful literary man. If this somewhat dubious source was used for the article on llamas and was still protected by copyright, it would be acceptable to say that the llama is an animal with a shaggy coat, and perhaps that it has a long neck.

These are facts. But use of the phrases "indolent expression" and "undulating throat" might violate copyright. The original choice of words is part of Belloc's creative expression.

Going further, the simile "like an unsuccessful literary man" is also creative, and is also protected. A clumsy paraphrase like "resembling a failed writer" might violate copyright even though the words are entirely different. More than the facts have been copied. It is of course also necessary that other requirements for copyright violation also exist, such as being a "substantial" taking.

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Translation from a foreign language is a form of paraphrase, since all the words or phrases have been replaced with equivalent English-language words or phrases. This may or may not be acceptable, depending on whether any creative expression — anything other than simple statements of fact — has been taken from the foreign-language source.Quotations—often informally called quotes —provide information directly; quoting a brief excerpt from an original source can sometimes explain things better and less controversially than trying to explain them in one's own words.

This page sets out guidelines for using quotations in Wikipedia articles, from a style, formatting and copyright perspective. Both quotations and paraphrases must be supported with a citation to a reliable source.

meaning of paraphrase wikipedia page

This is a courtesy to any readers doing research, signaling that they may need to review the original source for the particulars, which may be more meaningful in their original context.

It is also a good-faith way to help other editors assessing the article to decide whether they need to examine this contextualization whether by integration, compression of verbiage, or dropping of details exhibits correct source interpretation and no original analysis or synthesis.

Quotations are a good way to comply with the no original research policy but they must be used with care. Attribution should be provided in the text of the article, not exclusively in a footnote or citation.

Readers should not have to follow a footnote to find out the quotation's source.

How to cite Wikipedia

If no-one provides a citation and you can't find one yourself, feel free to delete the quoted text. Quotations should be representative of the whole source document; editors should be very careful not to quote material out of context to avoid misrepresenting the meanings and intentions of the source. Quotations that present rhetorical language in place of the neutral, dispassionate tone preferred for encyclopedias can be an underhand method of inserting a non-neutral treatment of a controversial subject into Wikipedia articles; be very careful.

We encourage the inclusion and use of all reliable sources—including biased ones—but biased and point-of-view POV content must be reliably sourced and POV language must be quoted and attributed, rather than stated in Wikipedia's voice.

For copyright-free and public domain material, use of quotation marks is not required by copyright but they must be used to avoid plagiarism and to provide clear attribution of the quoted material to the original author s.

At a minimum, the text must be attributed and given a footnote or a link to the original text must be provided. For copyrighted material, see below. For copyright-free and public domain material, longer quotations than would be allowed under " fair use " of copyrighted material may often be used. Do not put quotations in italics unless the quoted material would otherwise call for italics, such as for emphasis and the use of non-English words see the Manual of Style.

Indicate whether italics were used in the original text or whether they were added later. For example:. Now cracks a noble heart. Good night sweet prince: And flights of angels sing thee to thy rest! Quotations must always be clearly identified as such using double quotation marks "quoted text" for quotations shorter than about 40 words. Both of these methods set text apart from non-quoted material.This can be problematic when citing Wikipedia articles, which have no credited authors, no date of publication and no page numbers.

How to Cite Wikipedia in Text

However, both the MLA and APA publish guidelines for the in-text citation of sources that lack standard publication information. List the title of the article in quotation marks, within parentheses.

For example: "Relativity". Position your citation directly after the quoted or paraphrased passage. For example: One Wikipedia article defines association as "the relationship between things" "Relativity".

Do not include a paragraph number in your citation. Be sure that your reference list citation begins with and is alphabetized according to the title of the Wikipedia article.

This ensures that your reader will be able to easily locate the reference entry for the article, based on your in-text citation.

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List the title of the article in quotation marks, followed by "n. This should appear in parentheses. For example: "Relativity", n. For example: One Wikipedia article defines association as "the relationship between things" "Relativity", n. Include a paragraph number if you want to direct your reader to a specific passage. How to Cite a Scientific Journal Article.

How to Cite the Constitution in Chicago Style. How to Reference "The Lancet". How to Do Internal Citations for a Website. How to Cite Wikipedia in Text. Forest Time Updated March 23, Published on November 29, by Jack Caulfield. Revised on December 10, Wikipedia is a useful source of background information that students often use in the early stages of research. The in-text citation includes the title of the article shortened if necessary and the year.

APA recommends linking to a specific archived version of the Wikipedia article so that the reader can be sure they are accessing the same version. The date you include is therefore the date of the revision you accessed, the URL that of the specific revision. APA Citation Generator.

In MLA stylethe title takes headline capitalization, the publisher is included, and there is a period after the URL. MLA Citation Generator. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment! Get started! In Chicago styleWikipedia can be cited informally in the text:.

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However, if you want to create a more formal citation, Chicago has guidelines for two different referencing styles: author-date or notes and bibliography. In author-date style, a parenthetical citation appears in the text, and full details are given in the reference list. In this style, you cite sources in footnotes or endnotes. You can either use full notes that give all publication details, or you can use short notes in combination with a bibliography.

Using Wikipedia as a source is generally discouraged in academic writing, and your institution may even have a specific rule against doing so.

Wikipedia is a compilation of information from various places rather than an original source in itself; in general, only primary and secondary sources should be cited in an academic paper. In addition, Wikipedia pages can be edited by anyone, which makes it difficult to determine the accuracy of the information they contain. Wikipedia is often a good starting point for your research, since most of its articles comprehensively cite the original sources of information.

You can often find useful sources through sections like referencesfurther readingand external linkslocated at the bottom of a Wikipedia article. Look for reliable sources such as scholarly journals, published books, and official websites. You may occasionally want to cite a piece of general rather than specialist information from Wikipedia. Make sure to check for any warnings at the top of the article that might indicate the information is unreliable. In this case, it might not be a good idea to use the article even for background information.

Thanks for reading! Hope you found this article helpful. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Do the check. Generate your APA citations for free! Are your APA in-text citations flawless?

Is this article helpful?A paraphrase mass is a musical setting of the Ordinary of the Mass that uses as its basis an elaborated version of a cantus firmustypically chosen from plainsong or some other sacred source.

It was a common means of mass composition from the late 15th century until the end of the 16th century, during the Renaissance period in music history, and was most frequently used by composers in the parts of western Europe which remained under the direct control of the Roman Catholic Church.

It is distinguished from the other types of mass composition, including cyclic massparodycanonsoggetto cavatofree composition, and mixtures of these techniques. Musical paraphrase, in general, had been used for a long time before it was first applied to the music of the Ordinary of the Mass. It was common in the early and middle 15th century for a work such as a motet to use an embellished plainchant melody as its source, with the melody usually in the topmost voice.

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John Dunstable 's Gloria is an example of this procedure, as are the two settings by Guillaume Dufay of the Marian Antiphon Alma redemptoris mater. Many compositions in fauxbourdona characteristic technique of the Burgundian Schooluse a paraphrased version of a plainchant tune in the highest voice.

In these cases the source would not be obscured by the paraphrase; it was still easily recognizable through whatever ornamentation was applied. Dufay was probably one of the first to use paraphrase technique in the mass. His Missa Ave regina celorum written between and is similar to a cantus firmus mass in that the tune is in the tenor, however it is paraphrased by elaboration and he also includes bits of his own motet on that antiphon, foreshadowing the parody technique.

By the s or s, the first masses appear that use paraphrase in more than one voice: two examples survive by Johannes Martinithe Missa domenicalis and the Missa ferialis. By the beginning of the 16th century, it was becoming more common to use the paraphrased tune in all voices of a polyphonic texture. The most famous example from the early 16th century, and one of the most famous paraphrase masses ever composed, was the Missa pange lingua by Josquin des Prezwhich is an extended fantasia on the Pange Lingua hymn for Corpus Christi by Thomas Aquinas.

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This mass was probably composed near the end of Josquin's life, around In the Missa pange linguaall voices carry variants of the hymn, with the beginnings of successive phrases marking points of imitation in the mass. All voices are given equal weight, and the score achieves a motivic unity which was a significant change from previous practice. Another composer of Josquin's generation who was important in the development of the paraphrase mass was Pierre de La Rue. Like Josquin, he began with the cantus firmus technique, and continued to use it for most of his life; but he began to elaborate the source material, eventually integrating it into multiple voices of a polyphonic texture where all the voices had equal weight.

Later in the 16th century, paraphrase remained a common technique for construction of masses, although it was employed far less frequently than was parody technique. Palestrina used paraphrase technique in 31 of his masses, second only to parody, which he used in In these works, the source hymns are often presented in a condensed form. When the Council of Trent prohibited the use of secular songs as sources for masses ina large corpus of music was no longer available to composers who had been ransacking it for parodies; those composers who followed the Council's dictates often returned to using monophonic hymns and plainsong, sources which suggested the paraphrase technique.

Indeed, during this period, it was the favored method of using Gregorian chants to construct masses. Paraphrase masses were written relatively infrequently in England and Germany, especially after the Protestant Reformation. Composers of masses in those regions developed styles independently, and in both areas tended to use variations of the cantus firmus technique. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. New York, W.

Bloomington, Indiana. Frangipani Press, Stanley Sadie. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. Don Randel. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, Oxford University Press, Categories : 15th century in music 16th century in music Masses music Renaissance music.

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