Although the format and content of dissertations differ dramatically across different fields of study, several core components appear in all disciplines. A typical dissertation includes an introduction, a background or literature review, discussions of the theories and methods used in the research, data analysis and results, a discussion or interpretation of the results, and a conclusion.
Each of these components may be in a separate section or chapter, or you may address multiple components within sections. Above all, it should include a statement of the research question that your project investigates.
The background section is often called the literature review. The background synthesizes current knowledge on your research question in far greater detail than your introductory section does. Its goal is to articulate patterns within the literature and to describe unresolved issues or questions, then to show how your study fits into the larger body of work in your field.
You can organize your overview of other research in several ways, including in chronological order, by significant issues, or from broad information about your field to specific studies on your topic.
Some disciplines organize the introduction and background as separate sections of the dissertation. Dissertations in the social sciences, for instance, frequently have an introduction followed by a literature review.
The hard sciences also tend to follow this format, with each subsequent chapter representing a published article related to the broad research question. Individual dissertation chapters then contain further discussion of the criticism related to specific texts that the chapter investigates.
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How to Write a Proposal for a Finance Dissertation. How to Write an English Thesis Proposal. How to Write an Academic Project Proposal. The Difference in the Introduction and Background of a Dissertation. Elissa Hansen Updated March 02, About the Author.
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You may view or hide descriptions of the guides. Development of these guides began inwhen the original Online Writing Center was developed for campus use at Colorado State University. Several guides were developed in Asymmetrix Multimedia Toolbook and then migrated to the web in Over the years, additional guides were developed and revised, reflecting the efforts of many writers and writing teachers.
We thank them for their generosity. You can learn who developed a particular guide by clicking on the "contributors" link in that guide. Inthe guides were moved into a content management system developed for the Writing CSU site.
Members of the staff in the Colorado State University Writing Center were among the group that migrated the guides to the new system. My Page. Writing Center. Home Writing Guides. View the Guides Help Pages. Writing and Speaking. Composing Processes: Planning and Organizing. Composing Processes: Drafting, Designing, and Revising. Writing Arguments. Writing for the web. Collecting Information. Working with Sources.
Documenting Sources.Literature Reviews: Common Errors Made When Conducting a Literature Review
Writing about Literature. Writing in Business. Writing in Engineering. Writing in the Sciences. Writing in Your Career.Follow the directions below for the completion of the introduction and literature review revision assignment for Unit V.
If you have questions, please email your professor for assistance. Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to revise the introduction and literature review of your academic argumentative research paper, which you created a draft of in Unit IV. Description: In this assignment, you will revise the introduction and literature review that you wrote for the Unit IV assignment. The following parts of the assignment must be revised:. Literature review preface: This paragraph acts as a guide to what the reader can expect in the literature review.
Literature review body: This section includes three to four body paragraphs that discuss the history, terminology, and both sides of the controversy pro and con.
Literature review conclusion: The conclusion signals that the literature review is ending, but it also acts as a kind of preface for the body of the paper by restating the thesis statement and establishing your argument once again.
Demonstrate the avoidance of plagiarism through proper use of APA citations and references for all paraphrased and quoted material. Example: Click here to access the example introduction and literature review.
Note: The conclusion is not presented in this example; however, the literature review conclusion is a requirement of the assignment. You may also seek out the guidance of the Success Center; the specialists are always there to assist you with your writing and comprehension.
Criminal activities have been on rise in the recent past.Entry level cover letter benefits coordinator
This has been attributed to the many by so many causes that have been prevalent in the contemporary world. The number of the criminal activities have really escalated off late owing to the increase in the population of the many unemployed people. The criminal activities have been happening in different places but the much distribution has mainly been in the crowded areas. Insecurity follows suit because the criminal activities play a big role in threatening the security of everybody.What graphic design means work
This has made the law to be very active in taking effect whenever a criminal activity is committed, Wexler, The forces responsible for maintaining law and order have been forced to be more active in ensuring that they do their best when it comes to taking care of the innocent people who may be victims of the criminal activities.
This is because security against any criminal activity is a right of all the citizens who live in a specific area. The justice system should also ensure that serious actions are taken to ensure that these actions of criminal activities are done with a lot of fairness so that the one who deserve to be receive justice. This strengthening of the administration of the justice system should be key so that those who commit any illegal action face the legal consequence that has been put in place.
This has the effect of ensuring that the justice system is strengthened as well as promoting some levels of fairness to all Barkow, The crime rates issues have some legal solution based on the support that the law gives.
This because every nation has the justice system that ensures that those who go centrally to the law have their legal share of the consequences that they have to encounter. The justice system is so fair such that it is always taking care of the even those who commit such crimes. The legal channels are properly followed to ensure that there is prevailing of justice to both the victims and the doers of the criminal offenses.
This comes with some distinctions of the criminal activities ranging from the most serious ones to those that can be solved using the simplest means possible. There is a degree in which these criminal offenses are classified and this makes them to occur in different magnitudes, Wexler, The extent to which this happens translates to different courses of actions that are taken because all the offenses cannot be approached in the same manner.
To some extent, this method is good as it helps in hiding the criminals who are big threat to the society from having the opportunity to keep on doing the criminal activities.
The increase in the number of criminal activities has really raised a key question on whether imprisonment is the only way to rectify the mess in the justice system.This handout will explain what literature reviews are and offer insights into the form and construction of literature reviews in the humanities, social sciences, and sciences.
And a review does not necessarily mean that your reader wants you to give your personal opinion on whether or not you liked these sources. A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period. A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis.
A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information. It might give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations. Or it might trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates.Advantages and disadvantages action research
And depending on the situation, the literature review may evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant. In a research paper, you use the literature as a foundation and as support for a new insight that you contribute. The focus of a literature review, however, is to summarize and synthesize the arguments and ideas of others without adding new contributions.
Literature reviews provide you with a handy guide to a particular topic. If you have limited time to conduct research, literature reviews can give you an overview or act as a stepping stone.
For professionals, they are useful reports that keep them up to date with what is current in the field. For scholars, the depth and breadth of the literature review emphasizes the credibility of the writer in his or her field.Disclosure means what time tonight
Comprehensive knowledge of the literature of the field is essential to most research papers. Literature reviews are written occasionally in the humanities, but mostly in the sciences and social sciences; in experiment and lab reports, they constitute a section of the paper.
Sometimes a literature review is written as a paper in itself. If your assignment is not very specific, seek clarification from your instructor:.
Look for other literature reviews in your area of interest or in the discipline and read them to get a sense of the types of themes you might want to look for in your own research or ways to organize your final review. There are hundreds or even thousands of articles and books on most areas of study. The narrower your topic, the easier it will be to limit the number of sources you need to read in order to get a good survey of the material. Keep in mind that UNC Libraries have research guides and to databases relevant to many fields of study.
Some disciplines require that you use information that is as current as possible. In the sciences, for instance, treatments for medical problems are constantly changing according to the latest studies.
Information even two years old could be obsolete. However, if you are writing a review in the humanities, history, or social sciences, a survey of the history of the literature may be what is needed, because what is important is how perspectives have changed through the years or within a certain time period.
Try sorting through some other current bibliographies or literature reviews in the field to get a sense of what your discipline expects. You can also use this method to consider what is currently of interest to scholars in this field and what is not.
A literature review, like a term paper, is usually organized around ideas, not the sources themselves as an annotated bibliography would be organized. This means that you will not just simply list your sources and go into detail about each one of them, one at a time. As you read widely but selectively in your topic area, consider instead what themes or issues connect your sources together.A literature review is an integrated analysis-- not just a summary-- of scholarly writings that are related directly to your research question.
That is, it represents the literature that provides background information on your topic and shows a correspondence between those writings and your research question.
A literature review may be a stand alone work or the introduction to a larger research paper, depending on the assignment. Rely heavily on the guidelines your instructor has given you.
Your opinion counts! Please give us feedback. Search this Guide Search. Home What is a Literature Review? What is a Literature Review? Need Help? Ask Us!
Literature Review: Conducting & Writing
A Literature Review Is Not: just a summary of sources a grouping of broad, unrelated sources a compilation of everything that has been written on a particular topic literature criticism think English or a book review So, what is it then? Why is it important? A literature review is important because it: Explains the background of research on a topic.
Demonstrates why a topic is significant to a subject area. Identifies major themes, concepts, and researchers on a topic. Identifies critical gaps and points of disagreement. Discusses further research questions that logically come out of the previous studies.
Report a problem. Subjects: General.In essence, a literature review identifies, evaluates and synthesises the relevant literature within a particular field of research.
It illuminates how knowledge has evolved within the field, highlighting what has already been done, what is generally accepted, what is emerging and what is the current state of thinking on the topic.
In addition, within research-based texts such as a Doctoral thesis, a literature review identifies a research gap i. However, your literature review does not need to be inclusive of every article and book that has been written on your topic because that will be too broad.Become a royal marines officer in
Rather, it should include the key sources related to the main debates, trends and gaps in your research area. A review of literature presents much more than a summary of relevant sources.
The act of reviewing involves evaluating individual sources as well as synthesising these sources in order to gain a broad view of the field. When you can clearly observe these things, you will be able to situate your own research and contribute to ongoing debates within the field. What do you think a literature review is, and what is it not? Drag and drop the following statements under the right heading and click 'check' to check your answers.
A literature review should not include every single source that you have read. Ensure the sources you analyse are directly relevant to your research question s and topic. As you can see, a core characteristic of literature reviews - and a point of difference from these other genres - is the synthesis of multiple sources.
Whereas a critical review evaluates a single source, and an annotated bibliography evaluates a number of sources presented separately within a series of isolated paragraphsa literature review connects and brings together a number of sources, often within single paragraphs - and indeed sentences. While an annotated bibliography functions as a list, with little opportunity to connect sources, a literature review necessitates the juxtaposing, comparing and contrasting of sources.
Creating an annotated bibliography is a useful step towards completing a literature review, and it is a useful note taking method. However, the literature review is one step beyond this evaluation of resources, as it is primarily concerned with examining the field. If you are writing a systematic review, you can find useful information in this Library Guide. In a literature review, however, you will notice the synergy between analysis and synthesis as you zoom-in to closely analyse an individual source, then zoom-out to consider it in relation to the broader field.
After analysing a range of sources, you should synthesise the relevant sources, connecting, linking and positioning them against each other, in order to identify the recurring themes, trends and areas of agreement or disagreement within your research field.
After reading and analysing individual sources, you have identified a key concept relating to your research topic as well as a key resource A relating to that concept.
The argument in resource A is supported by another article Bwhich is in turn supported by article D. However, you have also found article C, which contradicts the argument presented in resource A.
One way to synthesise these texts, is to group together the texts supporting your key resource articles B and Dand explain that article C presents contradictory results. Then, you would need to examine the methodological differences or any other possible reasons for the contradictory results. Another way of managing sources and arguments presented in them is to use a literature review matrix also called synthesis matrix.
Literature review matrix is a table in which you can represent the views, ideas, or data according to thematic categories that correspond to your research project. As you fill out your matrix, you will begin to get a clearer view of how different sources are related, and recognise patterns that may not have been immediately visible before.
For example, you may see a correlation between sample sizes and types of conclusions, or between specific kinds of aims and the methods chosen to address them. Because information is arranged in thematic columns, you can get a useful overview of all aims, or all methods at a glance.
You can add new columns as your understanding improves. Thus the review matrix can also be a powerful tool for synthesising the patterns you identify across literature, and for formulating your own observations. Literature reviews exist within different types of scholarly works with varying foci and emphases.
Short or miniature literature reviews can be presented in journal articles, book chapters, or coursework assignments to set the background for the research work and provide a general understanding of the research topic.
However, the focus of a literature review in a graduate research thesis is to identify gaps and argue for the need for further research.
Depending on the purpose of the writer and the context in which the literature review will be presented, a selective or comprehensive approach may be taken.
In the selective approach, a single or limited number of sources are reviewed e. A comprehensive approach requires the review of numerous books and articles e. Within a thesis, a literature review may appear in a single chapter — often being the first independent chapter after the introduction.
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I have read several articles about literature reviews. At the same time I found some guides about literature surveys.
I am confused What is the standard procedure to conduct a literature survey without making it a literature review? Reviewing the literature relevant to a given field is a standard part of doing research, as this serves to put your work into the context of the larger discipline in which you are working.
If there is an actual difference between the "literature survey" and the "literature review," it's that the latter can serve as a paper in and of itself, and is much more extensive than a literature survey, which is typically a major part of the introduction of a research paper. The literature review as a standalone article could be compared to a "curated" overview of the literature in the field—who has done what, how do papers relate to one another, and what are the most important present and possibly future directions of work in such a field.
Such papers can also be considerably longer than a traditional research paper, and some reviews might cite as many as a thousand references! In comparison, the literature survey of a standard research article is usually much shorter journal pagesand will not cite nearly as many papers anywhere from 10 todepending on the topic and the amount of relevant literature available. First View: One of the most important things to consider is that, these terms have been used differently in varied academic disciplines and even in some cases they are used interchangeably with negligible differences.
Even in CS my fieldthe way image processing scholars look at these terms may be different from networking researchers I once experienced the comments I received from experts in image processing and realize how different they look at the works. So it might not be wrong if consider insignificant differences between these two terms. What I describe here may be more applicable to CS. There are two different views at these terms that I describe here.
Technically a feasible description around these two terms is that in survey works you should review the published papers and analyze, summarize, organize, and present findings in a novel way that can generate an original view to a certain aspect of the domain.
For example, if researchers review the available research findings and conclude that electrical cars are emission-free vehicles, another researcher can review the same results and present an argument that building batteries themselves produce huge emission.
The second contribution opens door for new research around emission-free production of car batteries. If we consider that survey paper is the result of literature survey, we can use the following definitions from CS journals. Literature Survey: Is the process of analyzing, summarizing, organizing, and presenting novel conclusions from the results of technical review of large number of recently published scholarly articles.
The results of the literature survey can contribute to the body of knowledge when peer-reviewed and published as survey articles. Literature Review: Is the process of technically and critically reviewing published papers to extract technical and scientific metadata from the presented contents.
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